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1  DURIE, Charles Alfred (I00344)

1859 residing with his mother at Rhyd-y-Cilgwyn.
1872 emigrated to New Zealand.

1861 Census:- Ref:- Reel 76 4293 Rhydycilgwyn
John Maysmor Head, unmarried, 20 Fa rmer 280 acres Born - Llanynys
Charles Humprey Maysmor Brother, unmarried, 21 Bank Clerk . "
Marian Maysmor Sister " 1 8 Farmer's daughter "
Emma Maysmor Sister " 1 7 " " "
Catherine Amy Jackman half-sister " 26 Wi ne Merchant's daughter, Cripplegate, London, Middlesex.
12 Servants for House and Farm. 
MAYSMOR, John (I00558)

1972-1975 Compiled the Maysmor Tree, sent to me by Dawn Maysmo r (nee Jackson). 
MAYSMOR, Robert Douglas Powys (I00609)

Daughter of Major David Stark DURIE. 
DURIE, Katherine Anne (I00559)

Daughter of Alexander Turner, Timber Merchant of Christchurch. 
TURNER, Marjorie Douglas (I00606)

Died at 18 months. 
MAYSMOR, Marjory (I00528)

Had issue. 
HUNTER, Mavis (I00620)

MAYSMOR, Percy Howard Wynne (I00562)
9 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. MAYSMOR, Ida Gwendoline (I00563)

ashes taken to Purewa, Auckland 
NOLAN, Beryl Leone (I00619)

BARKER, Harold Studholm (I00529)

Fought in the Boer War 
DURIE, Arthur James (I00364)

his father started the Waihi goldmine 
NICHOLS, George (I00858)

live at Petersham, Richmond, Surrey 
CHALMERS, Rosemary Clair (I00625)

when he returned from ? he lived with David and Elizabeth DURIE (Wynne's parents). 
KILGOUR, Richard Marmion (I00861)

Worked for New Zealand Insurance in India. His wife Pam was a secretary at the British embassy in Bagdhad. 
CHALMERS, David Nolan (I00538)
17 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. DURIE, Lilian (I04839)
Henry Oldenburg (c.1619?1677), by Jan van Cleef, 1668
Oldenburg, Henry [Heinrich] (c.1619?1677), scientific correspondent and secretary of the Royal Society, was born in the free city of Bremen, Germany, one of two children of Heinrich Oldenburg (d. 1634), a teacher at the Bremen Paedegogium and later a professor at Dorpat University. His ancestors, originally from M?nster, had been Calvinist teachers since the mid-sixteenth century. Oldenburg's grandfather, also Heinrich, had repaired the buildings of the vicaria of St Liborius at the protestant cathedral, in return for which he, his son, and his grandson inherited an annual income of 100 reichsthaler, which was paid only fitfully and precariously.
Developing years
Oldenburg began his education at the Paedegogium where his father taught, and transferred in May 1633 to the Gymnasium illustre for a thorough grounding in religion, classical languages, the liberal arts, and theology; he received the degree of master of theology on 2 November 1639 for a thesis on relations between church and state. In May 1641 he left Bremen for the Netherlands with letters of introduction to various scholars. (He was perhaps influenced by the fact that his sister was about to marry Heinrich Koch, a relation of Johannes Koch, or Coccejus, professor of theology at Leiden.) Oldenburg settled briefly in Utrecht, which possessed a lively university where Cartesianism was taught. However, he found Utrecht expensive and began in August to look for employment ?instructing either the son of a nobleman or the son of some honest merchant? (Correspondence, 1.3?6). For the next twelve years he travelled on the continent and in England as tutor to a succession of young men, mostly English, with both royalist and parliamentary connections, as indicated by surviving drafts of letters in his commonplace book. His aim was not only to earn his living but to learn about relations between church and state and to see the world. In all of this he was clearly very successful, becoming fluent in the languages of the countries he visited. He met many Englishmen living abroad, notably John Dury and John Pell, with both of whom he later had connections.

In the later spring of 1653 Oldenburg visited Bremen, probably to try to secure the title to his vicaria. The city was suffering from the effects of the First Anglo-Dutch War, which put at risk its all-important merchant fleet, and the senate was about to appoint an envoy to England to negotiate recognition of Bremen's neutrality. Oldenburg secured the post on 30 June 1653. He arrived in England in late July and began negotiations promptly, though inconclusively, as he told the Bremen senate; in any case the war ceased in the next spring. Soon afterwards the senate asked him to beg Cromwell to intercede between the Swedes and the city: Oldenburg found Cromwell favourably disposed and a strong letter was written to Sweden, but with little result. However, the mission proved very profitable to Oldenburg himself, not in money but in a growing acquaintance with English politicians and scholars, particularly with Milton, who admitted him into his personal circle, which included Lady Katherine Ranelagh and her young brother Robert Boyle. All seem to have found Oldenburg an attractive man, and Milton wrote approvingly that he had ?learnt to speak our language more accurately and fluently than any other foreigner I have ever known? (Correspondence, 1.34). During most of 1654 and 1655 Oldenburg lived in Kent with the Honywood family, to one of whom he had acted as tutor; he kept in touch with many former charges while looking for another post. This search ended with his appointment in 1656 to supervise Richard Jones (1641?1712), son of Viscount and Lady Ranelagh, first at Oxford and then abroad.
The rise to prominence
In resuming his career as tutor Oldenburg sacrificed his independence but cemented his relations with Robert Boyle, his lifelong patron; developed a keen interest in natural philosophy; and learned how to elicit information from new acquaintances and how to maintain a scientific correspondence. When he went to Oxford with Jones for some reason he ?entred [sic] as a Student?, as Anthony Wood put it (Athenae Oxoniensis, 1721, 2.114), under the designation of ?nobilis Saxo??a curious act of self-aggrandizement, for though he could fairly call himself a Saxon he was never a noble. He supervised his pupil while at the same time educating himself in natural philosophy by frequenting on terms of equality the circle centred around John Wilkins, whom he had already met in London. This circle included Boyle, John Wallis, Seth Ward, Dr Jonathan Goddard, Thomas Willis, Christopher Wren, Richard Lower, and Robert Hooke, who was then assistant to, successively, Willis and Boyle?all men who, as Oldenburg told a Dutch friend, ?are followers of nature itself and truth? (Correspondence, 1.89?92). He quickly absorbed their spirit and appreciated their activities, and was able to understand their achievements. Boyle admitted Oldenburg to his confidence, allowing him to copy out some drafts of essays that were not to be published for some years.

In May 1657 Oldenburg and Jones left for what became a three-year sojourn on the continent. They settled in Saumur, which they chose for its protestantism and its educational establishments. Thence Oldenburg wrote to Milton about theological controversies, to Boyle about chemistry and the natural philosophers he met, and to Hartlib about practical matters. The next spring he and Jones undertook a five-month tour of Germany: they visited courts and universities, meeting physicians, alchemists, mechanicians, the nobility, and minor royalty with equal interest and aplomb, Oldenburg having obviously mastered the art of extracting information from all whom he met. They were welcomed everywhere and Oldenburg reported carefully to Boyle and Hartlib what they would wish to learn about natural philosophy and mechanics. They spent the winter in the south of France, again meeting natural philosophers in academies and universities and being welcomed warmly.

In 1659 Oldenburg and Jones travelled via La Rochelle to Paris; they arrived in March and stayed for over a year. Here life duplicated that of the previous winter. Oldenburg saw that his pupil received instruction in the polite arts and in varied intellectual activities. Academies had proliferated in Paris in the early seventeenth century and Oldenburg soon sought out those devoted to natural philosophy, especially the famous Montmor Academy, in whose animated discussions and scientific debates he participated fully. His descriptions sent to Boyle and his friends in the south of France are vivid accounts of the intellectual life of Paris at this time. During this period he matured as a virtuoso and mastered the art of scientific communication. He frequented libraries and reported on their contents, beginning the familiarity with publications that was later to enable him to act as a book agent.

In May 1660 Oldenburg and Jones were summoned home, and arrived in time for Charles II's triumphant entry into London. Although both religion and acquaintances had inclined Oldenburg to parliamentarian government, like most of his friends (except Milton) he fully accepted the Restoration government. But he now had no settled employment and it is not obvious how he lived. Presumably he worked for Boyle, who was always his patron and for whom he was soon acting as translator. On 28 November 1660 the organizational meeting of what was to become the Royal Society of London was held, and Oldenburg's name was on the list of potential members. He was soon formally elected, and he played an active role [see Founder members of the Royal Society].

In the summer of 1661 Oldenburg took a month's continental trip. He went briefly to Bremen and then to Holland, where he visited friends in Amsterdam and Leiden; in the latter city he saw relatives and met and conversed with Spinoza, after which he went to The Hague to renew acquaintance with Christiaan Huygens, whom he had already met in London. An important result was a well-known correspondence with Spinoza, with whom Oldenburg discussed theology and natural philosophy, in the latter field with the assistance of Boyle whose approach to the subject he adopted and fully supported. (The correspondence was first published in Spinoza's Opera posthuma, 1677.) Oldenburg continued to act as purveyor of news to Boyle, as he was to do throughout his life. He became ?publisher? (acting as intermediary between author and printer) of many of Boyle's books, as signed prefaces show, and translator of many into Latin for the continental market. Boyle paid him at agreed rates, which was a source of income for his lifetime.

In July 1662 the Royal Society came officially into existence and acquired a formal structure with the granting of a royal charter. Oldenburg was named as a member of council and one of the two secretaries, and the structure was reinforced the next spring with the grant of a second charter. The charters specifically gave permission for the society (through the secretaries) to correspond freely at home and abroad, while newly enacted statutes specified that a secretary must attend all meetings, take minutes, attend to correspondence, and maintain the society's ?books? (its records). Oldenburg was to be the only active secretary: immensely hard-working and a brilliant correspondent, he was soon to symbolize the much admired Royal Society in the eyes of learned foreigners. Because he was so conscientious the bulk of his correspondence survives, showing its range and scope (both large) and revealing much about the state of natural philosophy of the time in England. Like Pepys, Oldenburg was a skilful administrator, holding the society together and helping to make it work: going to meetings whose content he helped to organize and supply; conferring regularly with his working colleagues, often in coffee houses, between meetings; proposing foreign fellows; and directing the amanuensis who acted as his copying clerk. All this was without pay, and he began to think of making money by purveying news, a plan that was brought into being a few years later.

On 22 October 1663 Oldenburg married Dorothy West (c.1623?1665), ?aged about 40 and a mayden of her owne Disposing? as the marriage licence states, declaring himself to be ?aged about 43 yeares?. Nothing is known about the bride except that her trustees were two baronets and she possessed a dowry of ?400. The couple set up house in Pall Mall, very near Lady Ranelagh (but not in the lodgings that Oldenburg had used previously). They soon acquired a family in the shape of John Dury's daughter, Dora Katherina (1654?1677), officially a ward of the London church of Austin Friars. As the child possessed property, presumably Oldenburg's income then increased. His wife died at the beginning of February 1665 and thereupon he very properly requested the elders of the church to make other arrangements for Dora Katherina Dury, and this seems to have been done. Although he then received the remainder of his wife's dowry it soon vanished in necessary expenses.

Oldenburg now decided to bring his plans for a news sheet to fruition. In the spring of 1665 he instituted his Philosophical Transactions, which was intended to incorporate news derived partly from his correspondence and partly from the activities of the Royal Society, with, soon, reviews of scientific books. It is the oldest continuous scientific journal: though the Journal des S?avans preceded it by a few weeks, this was primarily a book-reviewing journal, and not predominantly devoted to natural philosophy. The Philosophical Transactions, as his private venture, brought Oldenburg fame but never much income (seldom as much as ?40 a year). So great was the demand abroad that four volumes by different translators appeared in Latin (1666?9), a partial French edition was made for the use of the Acad?mie Royale des Sciences, and an Italian edition was published in 1729. Publication was disrupted by the outbreak of plague in London?the court and much of the society dispersed, while Oldenburg stayed in the city, dealing with public and private business, his only precaution being to smoke a pipe of tobacco every evening.

In 1666, when life returned to normal in London as the plague diminished, the Royal Society's meetings resumed and Oldenburg's life also went on as before. He had now acquired financial support from Sir Joseph Williamson of the state paper office, who, with the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Dutch War (February 1665), was anxious to acquire knowledge of French and Dutch public opinion and, as a loyal fellow of the Royal Society, to assist its hard-working secretary. The arrangement was that Oldenburg should have a postal address, Mr or Monsr Grubendol, which ensured that all letters so addressed went direct to Williamson's office; Williamson then paid the postage and had the unopened letters delivered by hand to Oldenburg. The latter copied out any political or military news and gossip and sent this to Williamson.

Besides saving the cost of postage, this work, together with the translation of intercepted letters in Germanic languages, earned Oldenburg some unspecified but useful income. It was, however, the cause of personal misfortune: on 20 June 1667, a fortnight after the public disaster of a Dutch raid on the Medway and Chatham, Oldenburg was closely imprisoned in the Tower of London by order of Lord Arlington, secretary of state and thus Williamson's superior. He was accused of ?dangerous desseins and practices? (Correspondence, 3.448) or, as Pepys noted in his diary (24 June 1667), of ?writing news to a Virtuoso in France?. He repeatedly expressed his innocence and insisted that it was patriotism alone that led him to regret that the war had gone so badly from ?oversights and omissions some where? (Correspondence, 3.448). Arlington was much blamed for the failure of his intelligence service to forewarn the English navy of Dutch plans, and, perhaps genuinely ignorant of the arrangements with Williamson, seems to have used Oldenburg as a scapegoat, not releasing him until 26 August 1667.
The years of achievement
Bravely Oldenburg returned to his usual duties, finding that almost all his acquaintances and correspondents responded as usual, the sole exception being his neighbour Dr Thomas Sydenham. His correspondence soon even increased in volume, diversity, and importance; he was described in 1668 by Glanvill as ?render[ing] himself a great Benefactor of Mankind by his affectionate care, and indefatigable diligence and endeavours in maintaining Philosophical Intelligence, and promoting Philosophy? (Glanvill, 103). For the last ten years of his life Oldenburg's unremitting correspondence kept him fully occupied, except for the need to earn a decent income. Unfortunately the Philosophical Transactions never sold as well as he had hoped; he had to give away many copies, and the printers were exigent. In 1668 he began a campaign to secure a salary from the Royal Society in view of his many duties, and appealed to Boyle and others. That year the society voted him a gift only of ?50, but the next year relented and voted an annual salary of ?40.

Oldenburg continued to supply news to Williamson and to publish and translate for Boyle, particularly in 1670 and 1671. He also began publishing for others, notably the Italian comparative anatomist and microscopist Malpighi, from whose letters he compiled books. He translated and published works by Fran?ois Bernier and A. Piganius (1671), and attached Steno's Prodromus to Boyle's Essays of Effluviums (1673). He continued to hope for patronage and in 1676 Williamson secured him a place as licensor of books on history; sadly he proved too conscientious for the post and resigned it after three months, partly because of complaints against him, more because of the work involved.

The increased need for income arose from Oldenburg's second marriage, at the age of about fifty, to Dora Katherina Dury, in August 1668. According to the marriage licence she was aged sixteen, but her father's friend John Pell declared she was only fourteen years and three months. In any case, she married with her father's consent. By the marriage Oldenburg secured the income of his wife's property, two farms (Battens and Wansunt) near Dartford Heath, Bexley, Kent, said to bring in ?60 a year, where family holidays were to be spent regularly. Children followed?Sophia (b. 1672) and Rupert (1675?1724).

A portrait by Jan van Cleef in the Royal Society, dated 1668 and said since at least 1804 to be of Oldenburg, shows a vigorous man with dark and wavy hair to his shoulders and a small moustache, in dark clothes and bands (he must have been in minor orders), with the habitual frown of a conscientious and short-sighted man. Brought up in the Calvinist faith and deeply pious, with a devout personal religion and a keen interest in millenarianism, he was no bigot; he publicly conformed to the Test Act of 1673, which demanded a firm Anglicanism, as he did again in 1677 in order to apply for naturalization (which was granted on 6 April).

During all the upheavals of his private life, Oldenburg continued to work for the good of the Royal Society and of natural philosophy. By now he had perfected his techniques: he had learned how to encourage talent (as his support and promotion of such men as Malpighi, Flamsteed, Leeuwenhoek, Leibniz, De Graaf, Martin Lister, and others show). Equally significant was his ability to persuade men reluctant to publish to permit him to insert their papers in his Philosophical Transactions and to continue to do so even when this provoked controversy. The most important example is undoubtedly that of Newton. From 1671 to 1677 he painstakingly coaxed the at first little-known Lucasian professor to submit his papers on optics to the Royal Society, then to permit their publication in his journal, and finally to respond to criticisms by those who could not accept his conclusions or repeat his experiments. It was a triumph of diplomatic skill of the greatest benefit to the world of natural philosophy. Just as important was Oldenburg's treatment of those few examples of his mathematical skill that Newton reluctantly released to him, culminating in the energetic exchanges with Leibniz in 1676?7. This involved Oldenburg in the tedious and difficult copying out of many pages of complex mathematical text, which indicates incidentally that he could follow advanced mathematics and perhaps even understand it.

From 1668 Oldenburg was Huygens's principal correspondent in England, giving him news of the Royal Society's affairs (Huygens had been a fellow since 1663), serving as an intermediary on mathematical subjects between him and Sluse of Li?ge, as on optical subjects between him and Newton. Oldenburg and Huygens had become good friends, so much so that in 1675 the latter offered any possible English patent for his newly invented spring-regulated watch either to the society or to Oldenburg. Brouncker, as president, resigned the potential advantages to Oldenburg, who promptly drafted a petition for a patent (which was never granted). Hooke, who claimed that he had long since invented the application of springs to regulate watches (but had never made one) was furious, and with his usual fertile ingenuity designed such a watch for which he now claimed a patent, insisting that Oldenburg had ?betrayed? him by telling Huygens of it?which was not the case (and Hooke's idea had appeared in print in any case). Twelve years of friendly association of two colleagues were forgotten and Hooke denounced Oldenburg bitterly, becoming more vindictive after the Royal Society's council supported his rival; he was to pursue his enmity even after Oldenburg's death. It was a bitter and troublesome episode. Historians have often accepted Hooke's view that Oldenburg was at fault, but it is difficult to see why?most of his colleagues and correspondents found him open, friendly, accommodating, tactful, and fair.

Oldenburg seems to have been generally healthy, with no more episodes of illness than normal. According to Hooke's diary he was seriously ill on 3 September 1677 ?with ague?; two days later he was dead, ?being striken speechless and senseless?. His death probably occurred at home in Pall Mall, London, though he was buried at St Mary the Virgin, Bexley, on 7 September. His young widow died on 17 September and was buried the next day in London.

Marie Boas Hall
Sources The correspondence of Henry Oldenburg, ed. and trans. A. R. Hall and M. B. Hall, 13 vols. (1965?86) ? A. R. Hall and M. B. Hall, ?Additions and corrections to The correspondence of Henry Oldenburg?, Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 44 (1990), 143?50 ? M. B. Hall, Henry Oldenburg: shaping the Royal Society (2002) ? T. Birch, The history of the Royal Society of London, 4 vols. (1756?7), vols. 1?3 ? F. Althaus, ?Oldenburg?, Beilage zur Allgemeinen Zeitung, 212 (2 Aug 1889), 1?3 [see also nos. 229?33] ? A. R. Hall and M. B. Hall, ?Some hitherto unknown facts about the private career of Henry Oldenburg?, Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 18 (1963), 94?103 ? A. R. Hall and M. B. Hall, ?Further notes on Henry Oldenburg?, Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 23 (1968), 33?42 ? The diary of Robert Hooke ? 1672?1680, ed. H. W. Robinson and W. Adams (1935) ? E. Hasted, The history and topographical survey of the county of Kent, 1 (1778), 40, 165 ? G. H. Turnbull, Hartlib, Dury and Comenius: gleanings from Hartlib's papers (1947) ? J. Glanvill, Plus ultra (1668), 103 ? Pepys, Diary ? parish register (burial), 7 Sept 1677, Bexley, St Mary the Virgin ? marriage licences

Archives Biblioth?que Nationale, Paris, letters ? BL, corresp. and papers, Add. MSS 4255?4476, passim ? BL, corresp. and papers relating to double-bottomed ships ? Bodl. Oxf. ? Bremen Archives, early letters, W.9.b.1.6 ? Paris Observatoire, letters ? PRO ? RS, commonplace book, MS M1 | Bodl. Oxf., letters to Martin Lister ? Christ Church Oxf., Evelyn MSS, Petty MSS, letters (Bowood House) ? CUL, corresp. with Sir Isaac Newton ? Kongelige Bibliotek, Copenhagen, Boll Brevs U4 no. 730 ? Mass. Hist. Soc., Winthrop MSS, letters and MSS ? Paris Observatoire, Hevelius corresp. ? RS, letters to Robert Boyle ? University of Bologna Library, Malpighi archives, MS 2085 ? University of Sheffield, letetrs to Samuel Hartlib

Likenesses J. van Cleef, oils, 1668, RS [see illus.]

Wealth at death contemporaries said either ?60 or ?40 p.a.; c.200 acres (second wife's estate)

? Oxford University Press 2004?6
All rights reserved: see legal notice

Marie Boas Hall, ?Oldenburg, Henry (c.1619?1677)?, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, May 2006 [, accessed 12 Oct 2006]

Henry Oldenburg (c.1619?1677): doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/20676

[Previous version of this biography available here: September 2004]

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Site credits  
OLDENBURG, Henry (I03739)
19 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. DURIE, John Mason (I04487)
Father John DURIE (c.1544?1588) and Father George DURIE were younger sons of Abbot George DURIE and Katherine Sibbald. Thynne calls him ?the son before he was abbat of the abbat of Dunfermling, brother to the lord of Duries? (Robert DURIE of that Ilk). They were legitimated by Mary Queen of Scots in 1549. With his mother, had a tack (lease) of the lands of Easter and Wester Pitcorthy, Easter Baldrig, and others dated 7 Aug 1566, which he disponed to his brother Henry 17 Jan 1576.

Educated at Paris and Louvain, John at least entered the Society of Jesus about 1576. There is a letter from John and George asking their mother to send them ?mair sark? (more shirts. Clearly, students had laundry problems even then! Graduating MA (where is not known) John lived at Coll?ge de Clermont, Paris, and by 1582 was teaching rhetoric there as ?presbyter et theologus?.

That year also saw his only book, the controversial "Refutatio Responsionis Whitakeri ad X Rationes Compiani" (Confutation in answer to the Responses of William Whitaker, Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge and a leading Calvinist, whose work had followed the Ten Reasons of Edmund Campion, the Jesuit martyr executed in 1581). DURIE's Confutation was reprinted at Ingoldstadt in 1585.

In July 1585, having left Angers in France, John DURIE returned to Scotland with another Jesuit, Edmund Hay, and a Roman Catholic political agent, Robert Bruce (and possibly his brother, George). He became Governor of Dumfries, and converted John, 8th Lord Maxwell to Catholicism. The political background was complex ? especially so near the English border, with Spain involved and King James VI?s conversion to Catholicism possible. Maxwell protected John DURIE while he ministered, often received penitents at night.
Maxwell was banished, early in 1586 after a three-day Roman Catholic celebration of Christmas at nearby Lincluden Abbey. When James held court at Dumfries in April 1587, DURIE too had left the area.

John DURIE was praised highly as a simple and humble man though ?exceptionally skilled in the classics? (Chadwick, 67) and by the leading Italian Jesuit Antonio Possevino for his learning and eloquence.

The ?saintly? priest (Shearman, 27) died of consumption in the care of Lady Wood on 20 October 1588 at Balbegno Castle in Kincardineshire (although another report has him die in germany, but this may be a confusion with John DURIE d. 1680). According to his fellow Jesuit Robert Abercrombie, who gave him the last rites, John DURIE converted ?several sons of the lady of the house? from his deathbed (Forbes-Leith, 205).

Alasdair Roberts, ?DURIE, John (c.1544?1588)?, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [, accessed 12 Oct 2006]
M. Dilworth, ?Dunfermline, Duries and the Reformation?, Records of the Scottish Church History Society, 31 (2001), 37?67
W. Forbes-Leith, ed., Narratives of Scottish Catholics under Mary Stuart and James VI (1885)
P. J. Shearman, ?Father Alexander McQuhirrie?, Innes Review, 6 (1955), 22?45
H. Chadwick, ?A memoir of Fr Edmund Hay S. I.?, Archivum Historicum Societas Iesu, 8 (1939), 66?85
Thynne, Catalog of the Writers of Scotland, p. 463
K. Brown, ?The making of a politique: the Counter-Reformation and the regional politics of John, eighth Lord Maxwell?, Scottish Historical Review, 66 (1987), 152?75
T. G. Law, ?Robert Bruce, conspirator and spy?, Collected essays and reviews of Thomas Graves Law, ed. P. H. Brown (1904), 313?19

Site credits  
DURIE, John (I00028)
21 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. DURIE, Ellen Eliza (I11950)
22 "The Kettle Poet" DURRIE, James (I02436)
23 .first wife of Arthur Hume-Spry. Divorced in 1876 by AHS. citing Florence and the Hon. James Dormer.She had a son named James Davidson in abt 1876 in London She subsequently remarried in 1879 in Marylebone registry office a William Edmond B Hale who died in Paddington in June 1896 aged 41. DAVIDSON, Florence (I10517)
24 .John Hanson Sperling came from v. wealthy family and served as curate and priest until l880's when the whole family converted to RCs. he then had to leave the Anglican priesthood. At age 26 he was already a controversial figure being criticized for airing 'high church views' in the Westbourne Magazine which he founded in l864. Settled in Wicken and built new rectory of St. Margaret's Church in 1856. Stained glass window on south side of chancel dedicated to John Barrow Sperling b. 1855 d. 1856 the vicar's infant son.Lived in the 1880s. 5 RoyalCrescent, Bath. There is also a window in St. John the Evangelist, Bath endowed by the Sperling family including my grandmother Kathleen Skerret as a young child. The H Sperlings lived for a while in Italy and is believed to have died in La Spezia (notes of my mother EWeller). SPERLING, John Hanson (I11103)
25 1568. Andrew DURIE of Nether Grange and his father Peter DURIE pay an annual rent to Sir Robert Melville of Murdocairnie
1573. Sir William Kirkcaldy executed, castle reverts to Sir Robert Melville of Murdocairnie .
1584. Melville and his son contract with Peter DURIE and his son Andrew by which the Duries gave up any rights to the castle 
DURIE, Andrew (I04670)
26 1638 and the National Covenant, signed at Greyfriars Church
King Charles regarded protests against the prayer book as treason, forcing Scots to choose between their church and the King. A "Covenant", swearing to resist these changes to the death, was signed in Greyfriars Church in Edinburgh. The covenant was widely accepted by the Scots.
During the months of March and April, the National Covenant was subscribed at Dunfermline by "the nobility, gentlemen, burgesses and community", among them James DURIE of Craigluscar, our Chief?s
DURIE, James (I00012)
27 1683 WILLIAM STEWART, M.A. (Glasgow, 12th July 1667). The collections, 25th Sept. 1687, "were so inconsiderable that the box was not able to maintain the poor"; an assessment was proposed according to Act of Parliament, which is said to be the earliest instance of a compulsory rate for this purpose. Rabbled at the Revolution. After S.'s rabbling it was found that the communion and baptismal plate was missing; on enquiry, the kirk-session found that it had been conveyed to Lord Lauderdale's house at Thirlstane, whence it was recovered by S.'s successor. He went to Fife, where he lived on the charity of friends. Died about 20th Nov. 1690, having marr. Grizel, daugh. of James DURIE of Craigluscar, who survived him (P. C. Acta, 23rd Dec. 1690), and had an only son, Charles.-[Hun. Univ. Glasg., iii.; Sess. Reg.; HS. Acc. of Min., 1689.] STEWART, William (I00148)
28 1841 Scotland Census, Edinburgh, Scotland: General Register Office for Scotland Source (S023910)
29 1871 Census interesting comment-by enumerator. short of money, always was and always will be. BROOKE, Edward (I10684)
30 1891 curate os St. Andrew, Stockwell. HOPKINS, William Bonner Leighton (I09871)
31 1911 Census. professional singer WILLIAMS, Violet Mary E P (I11382)
32 22 Nov [1646] , James DURIE of Craigluscour and Christian DURIE had Alexander, baptised in the kirk of Sawline upon a testimonial to the minister there; witnesses, Lieut.-Gen. Wm. Ruthven, Robert Mercer of Sawlin and James Wardlaw of Luscour.Parish Registe DURIE, Alexander (I00025)
33 27 Janry 1573-4 Patrick DURIE of Middlebaldrig with consent of his wife gave sasine of his one acre arable lying in the Middlebaldrig between the road leading to the Colliery on the east and the lands occupied by John Pearson on the west.
[Protocol Book of John Cunningham P.2, P.25, P.30, 37, & 40.]
27 Janry 1573-4 Patrick DURIE of Middlebaldrig with consent of his wife gave sasine of his one acrearable lying in the Middlebaldrig between the road leading to the Colliery on the East and the lands occupied by John Pearson on the West, which acre with the two butts at the head of the same is now possessed by William Welwod conform to Blench Charter.
[Protocol Book of John Cunningham P.40]  
DURIE, Patrik (I02062)
34 2nd daughter of Rosamund (Pennell) Croker. and Sir George Barrow. BARROW, Anna Maria (I11114)
35 2nd spouse Rosa Turner though no marriage cert can be found. Emigrated to USA in about 1908 but appears to have returned to the UK at least once in 1930. He seems to have had two children with Rosa Turner. Kenneth Gilliat Stevens born 15.2.1906 and Ivy Mildred Stevens 16.9.1904 in Bath.Birth cert. states father as Harold Shirley. Children appear to have been illegit. SMITH, Harold Gilliat (I11017)
36 ? buried with parets in Bedlay cemetey, Glasgow DOWRIE, Thomas (I10180)
37 Acquired Craigluscar from his father, who resigned his interests on 5 April 1732, with sasine 19th April 1732. (Strange, as his death date on his tombstone is 1726).
"In the year 1768 George DURIE disposed to his son Charles, the estate of Craigluscar and to his heirs whatsoever, thereby altering the destination of heirs here recited. George upon coming to the estate found it almost freed from debt, and his brothers and sisters were all dead, so he had the sole possession of a very neat fortune. Although he had a vast genius, and might have shined in the literary world, yet he could never turn it to a profitable speculation. His chief delight was in the reading of the Holy Scriptures, history, geography and the like. He was a good scholar, very conversant in the Latin and Greek authors but never discovered any talent for business. He entertained but a low opinion of himself, was adverse to ostentation of every kind, always plain in his dress, diet, and manner of life. He studied only to be contented and happy with little. He was endued with a very strong and vigorous constitution, and his temperance seemed to promise him a long and healthful life. But alas, as his family grew numerous the cares and anxieties insufferable from an indulging parent, bore him down with grief. After enjoying an almost uninterrupted state of health for the space of about 87 years, he was in April 1768 seized with a severe jaundice, which raged about a month, and afterwards turned into a complication of other disorders, under which he languished till the 27th November following, when about one o?clock in the afternoon he died without any great emotion or seeming trouble.
In the year 1735 he married his cousin Germain Elizabeth Thomson, still alive (1768), by whom he had seven sons and two daughters."
History of the Present Family by Charles DURIE, 1768 
DURIE, George (I01621)
38 Ada Mildred came from v.wealthy Sperling family.Married Charles P Skerrett and entered a Convent in Angers on death of husband despite having two young children one being my grandmother Kathleen later went into an enclosed order in Binches, Belgium. She died in France escaping Nazi occupation of Belgium and France..Her brother Charles entered Benedictine monestry in 1913 at Maredsous, Belgium later made Abbot of Glenstall nr. Limerick in 1935.He died at Maredous 1936. SPERLING, Ada Mildred (I11047)
39 Aged four years informally adoped by her aunt and uncle Mr. and Mrs. Valentine French who lived in Florence. Spent three years in convent school near Dublin.(see autobiography of Valentine Williams her son-World in Action published 1938) SKERRETT, Matilda Anna Mary Agnes (I11032)
40 Agnes may have married in Scotland, but nothing known. DURIE, Agnes (I11719)
41 Alexander DURIE Russell BSc FRSE FRAS
1872 - 1955

Alexander DURIE Russell lived at 19 Graham Street, Edinburgh. He attended George Heriot's School in Edinburgh and passed the Preliminary Examinations of the Scottish Educational Department in English, Mathematics, Latin, Dynamics, French, and German in June 1889 and June 1890. He first matriculated at the University of Edinburgh in October 1890.

Russell then studied Chemistry with Crum Brown, Mathematics with Chrystal, Natural Philosophy with Tait, Botany with Balfour, and Natural History with Ewart. He graduated with a B.Sc. from the University of Edinburgh in 1896. He was awarded the Neil Arnott Scholarship in Experimental Physics. After a year as a Demonstrator in Physics at the University, he was appointed to Morelands School, Edinburgh, where he taught for one year. He then became a Master at Stranraer High School, Wigtownshire, teaching there for two years. In 1899 he became a Master at Falkirk High School, Stirlingshire, later being promoted to Head of Mathematics. He remained there for the rest of his career, retiring in 1937.

Russell was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 12 December 1905 having been proposed by William Peddie, John Brown Clark, Robert Traill Omond, and Cargill Gilston Knott. A couple of years later he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.

At the meeting of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in February 1897 he became a member of the Society. He served on the Committee during 1906-09, was honorary treasurer during 1909-1915, and was then honoured with election as President for session 1915-16. He also contributed to the scientific work of the Society, for example he read the paper A special case of the dissection of any two triangles into mutually similar pairs of triangles to the meeting of the Society on Friday 8 December 1899.

His obituary in the Edinburgh Mathematical Notes:
Alexander D RUSSELL
It is with deep regret that we record the death on 20th January 1955 of Mr Alexander DURIE Russell, who was for many years Principal Teacher of Mathematics in Falkirk High School.
Mr Russell was a native of Edinburgh and received his secondary education at George Heriot's School. He then proceeded to the University of Edinburgh where he graduated B.Sc. with honours in mathematics and natural philosophy in 1896 and was awarded the Neil Arnott Scholarship in Experimental Physics.

Before going to Falkirk, where he spent nearly the whole of his teaching life, Mr Russell acted for a year as Demonstrator in Physics in the University and taught for one year in Morelands School, Edinburgh and for two years in Stranraer High School. In Falkirk, he rendered signal service to the High School and also to the Science and Art School, where he conducted continuation classes. He proved himself to be an inspiring and successful teacher, and his contribution to the general good of the Falkirk district would be hard to overestimate. His enthusiasm for mathematics was very real and he contributed several papers to the Edinburgh Mathematical Notes. He served our Society well, having acted at one time as Treasurer and then as President. In 1906, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and be was also a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Mr Russell was a keen churchman and was an elder of St Modan's Church, Falkirk. He was highly respected in the community for his personal character, ability and devotion to duty, and he will be greatly missed.

The sympathy of the Society is extended to his widow in her bereavement.

This obituary appeared in the Edinburgh Mathematical Notes. 
RUSSELL, Alexander DURIE (I04097)
42 Already early in 1607 letters of recommendation to the Marquis of Huntle (sic) were issued to Robert Kinnart, who was by his permission to raise a force of two hundred horse-soldiers, 1 for which purpose he is to receive the sum of 3630 Thaler. A few days later (January 26th) the king writes to Jacobus Spens (Spentz) 2 in Scotland that he hopes he and his levied Scots will be in Sweden in eight or ten vessels at the beginning of spring. But when no Spens appeared by the end of May another letter is despatched intimating the number of troops required sixteen hundred foot and six hundred horse.

Great is the disappointment of the king when all these promises proved futile. " If I had known," he writes on the 28th of June 1608, " that Dominus Jacobus Spentz was not able to fulfil his promise and levy those troops, as he and William Stuart and several others had said they would, I should have sent an ambassador long ago." 2
In the meantime he writes to the King of England on this subject, and having thus prepared him, sends Jacob Spens to him as a special messenger on the iyth of December. In his company travelled Samuel Cobron, Joannes Wacop, Hugo Cochrane, Georgius Duglasius, Daniel Rogerus, Robertus Kinnaird, Gulielmus Home, and Patricius Ruthven Scottish officers all bent on the same errand. Merchants were pressed into advancing a loan of 4500 Thaler, for which they were to receive as security the produce of certain copper and iron-mines.

2. James Spens is called Baron of " Wolmerstoun " ; he was the son of David Spens of Wormiston, who captured the Regent Lennox at Stirling in 1571. His life was strange and adventurous. After having been Provost of Crail in Fifeshire, and after having tried to civilise the Lewes [a reference to the Fife Adventurers*], he entered the service of Charles IX. of Sweden, but was recalled by King James. In 1612 he was sent to Gustavus Adolphus to promote the peace between Denmark and Sweden. In this he was unsuccessful.

*Was he therefore connected to Robert DURIE by marriage?

The Scots in Sweden, being a contribution towards the history of the Scot abroad; (1907)
Author: Fischer, Thomas Alfred, 1844-1906
Publisher: Edinburgh, Schulze 
WOMISTON, Sir James Spens of (I03895)
43 ANDREW MAULE DEWAR DURIE OF DURIE, CBE (2000), DL (Dunbartonshire 1996), Ch of the Name and Arms of DURIE, recognised by Ld Lyon King of Arms in the name of DURIE OF DURIE (formerly Dewar-DURIE) 25 May 1988; representer of the Duries of Craigluscar (15th), Capt, Argyll & Sutherland Highrs, served 1958-68 in BAOR, SE Asia, Aden, a dir successively of White Horse Distillers (1973-83), Long John Int. (1983-88), James Burrough Ltd (1988-1991) and chm Allied Distillers Ltd (1997-99), (man dir 1991-97), chm CBI Scotland 1997-99, memb Inc of Maltmen 1995, Liveryman of Worshipful Co of Distillers, 1986; b 13 Nov 1939; educ Wellington Coll; m 25 Aug 1972 ?Marguerite Jamila, dau of Graf Kunata Kottulinsky, of Vienna, Austria,  DURIE, Andrew MAULE Dewar (I00107)
44 Anglican Parish Registers, Manchester, England: Manchester Libraries, Information and Archives Source (S017733)
45 Anglican Parish Registers, Woking, Surrey, England: Surrey History Centre Source (S022556)
46 Anglican Parish Registers. Woking, Surrey, England: Surrey History Centre. Source (S022567)
47 Anna or Anne DURIE was born 7 September 1698 and married James in 1714. She died at her son James?s house in Westminster 29 March 1762 and was buried in the west cloister of Westminster Abbey.
James was Scotland?s most famous 18th Century composer. His works including the music entitled ?Airs for the Seasons?.
James Oswald was born in 1710 and died in 1769. He had a lucrative career as a teacher in London, and in 1742 he published his most popular work the ?Caledonian Pocket Companion,? which includes tunes for the lyrics of Robert Burns. He was granted a Royal Licence to set up his own publishing shop and office to print his own compositions. He was the most prolific Scottish composer of his time and popularized many Lowland Scottish melodies. He loved to recycle traditional old tunes.In 1781 he was appointed Chamber Composer to the English King George the third.
James Oswald was buried in the north aisle of the nave in Westminster Abbey on 1 April 1769. A small rectangular brass with a decorated border now covers his grave and those of members of his family. The brass shows the symbols of the four Evangelists at the corners, with a border of entwined roses, thistles and shamrocks with the initials JO. His crest of a silver star of six points is shown at the top together with a shield on which is a figure pointing a telescope at another star. The inscription reads:

?In memory of the Right Honble. James Oswald of Dunnikier, the friend of David Hume and Adam Smith, Lord of [the] Treasury and Treasurer of Ireland, M.P. for the county of Fife, Lord of Trade and Plantations, Commissioner of the Navy. Born 1715, died 1769. This memorial was placed over his remains by his great grandson James Townsend Oswald of Dunniker, Fifeshire and other of his descendants in the year 1871. The site of the grave is in the north aisle, ten feet from the centre of the step of the doorway going into the grassplot?.

Prior to this brass marker there were small memorial stones over the graves of James, his wife Elizabeth, Ann his sister in law, and George Oswald, James?s grandson

James?s father was James Oswald the younger of Dunniker, Fife, Scotland and his mother was Anne (DURIE). She was born 7 September 1698 and married James in 1714. She died at her son?s house in Westminster 29 March 1762 and was buried in the west cloister of the Abbey. James was born in 1715 and baptised at Kirkcaldy. He was educated at Edinburgh university and became a lawyer and Member of Parliament for Kirkcaldy burghs. On 19 January 1747 he married Elizabeth Reynardson (nee Townsend). She died 20 September 1779 and was buried with him in the nave, aged 80. Their only child was James Townsend Oswald, who succeeded his father as M.P. and married Janet Gray. One of their sons, George born 6 May 1779, was in the Civil Service of the East India Company. He died unmarried aboard a ship returning from Bengal and was buried in the nave on 12 June 1819. George?s niece, Lady Augusta Bruce, married Arthur Stanley, Dean of Westminster, in the Abbey and is buried in Henry VII?s chapel. Ann Oswald (nee Buchanan), who died 13 February 1785 aged 65, was the wife of the Revd. Dr John Oswald, a prebendary of Westminster 1755-62 and later Bishop of Clonfert, Dromore and Raphoe in Ireland. She was married in 1755 but seems to have had no children and was buried in the nave (her husband is buried at Raphoe).

Greensleeves, by James Oswald

Though little is known of Oswald's early life he was quite active in Scotland before moving to London in 1741. As a violinist he published two sets of compositions in 1736 and 1740 respectively. The first was a "Collection of Minuets" and the latter was a "Curious Collection of Scots Tunes." By this time he was also active as a singer. In London Oswald was paired with the publisher John Simpson. When Simpson died, Oswald ventured on his own and set-up a publishing shop for popular music. "The Caledonian Pocket Companion," in fifteen volumes, was a collection of Scottish folk tunes, a most excellent publication. Because he helped to found a secret musical society, The Temple of Apollo, with Burney and Reid who edited each other's works, it is difficult to assess some of the music that should or should not be attributed to Oswald. He may have contributed to stage productions of Alfred, Harlequin Ranger, and The Genii. In 1761 he was appointed as the chamber composer to George III who had just ascended the thrown. Oswald set "God save the King" for the bells of Windsor Church and may have composed the melody. "Airs for the Four Seasons" were trio sonatas sparked with original structures. Oswald's short works are noteworthy but his technical skills were never tested through extended formal structures.  
OSWALD, James Townsend (I12518)
48 Archibald was the eldest twin. He was involved in a mining accidentat the Lithgow Valley Colliery on 9.4.1886, where there was an explosion underground. [This caused a Royal Commission to be called on 14.7. 1886. DURIE, Archibald (I08472)
49 Archivist to the Admiralty (Bodleian Library) BARROW, John (I11234)
50 Army Headquarters, India, The Quarterly Indian Army List for January 1, 1912, Calcutta, India: Superintendent Government Printing, 1912 Source (S019845)

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